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The Holocene

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Institución detectada Período Navegá Descargá Solicitá
No detectada desde feb. 1998 / hasta may. 2016 EBSCOHost
No detectada desde ene. 1999 / hasta dic. 2023 SAGE Journals


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SAGE Publishing (SAGE)

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Estados Unidos

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A glacial lake outburst flood associated with recent mountain glacier retreat, Patagonian Andes

Stephan Harrison; Neil Glasser; Vanessa Winchester; Eleanor Haresign; Charles Warren; Krister Jansson

<jats:p> Geomorphological mapping, sedimentology, lichenometry and dendrochronology were used to assess the nature and timing of glacier recession, moraine development and catastrophic mass movements in a tributary of the Leones valley, east of the Hielo Patagónico Norte, Chile. We show that during the 'Little Ice Age' Glaciar Calafate advanced downvalley to produce a terminal moraine. Recession of the glacier from this position occurred in the 1 870s and produced a moraine dammed lake. In late 2000 a large rockfall into the lake breached the moraine and triggered a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) that entrained and subsequently deposited some 2 x 106 m<jats:sup>3</jats:sup> of material. We interpret this event as a delayed paraglacial response to the retreat of Glaciar Calafate during the twentieth century. </jats:p>

Palabras clave: Earth-Surface Processes; Archaeology; Ecology; Palaeontology; Global and Planetary Change.

Pp. 611-620

Modern pollen–vegetation relationships along an altitudinal transect in the Western Higher Himalaya, India: Palaeoclimatic and anthropogenic implications

Amit Kumar Mishra; Ruchika Bajpai Mohanty; Ruby Ghosh; Kriti Mishra; Uma Kant Shukla; Ratan KarORCID

<jats:p> Palynology is one of the most reliable tools for the reconstruction of past vegetation and climate and modern pollen analogues are important for the calibration of fossil pollen assemblages. The present study analyses the pollen–vegetation relationships along a steep altitudinal gradient (2700–3680 m), in the western Higher Himalayan region. On the basis of altitude, three vegetation zones were demarcated: Zone I (2700–3100 m) is composed of mixed-temperate forest vegetation, dominated by Quercus semecarpifolia and Rhododendron arboreum; Zone II (3100–3250 m) is marked by sub-alpine forest vegetation, characterised by R. campanulatum and R. barbatum, along with Abies spectabilis and Q. semecarpifolia; Zone III (3250–3680 m) is above the tree-line (3250 m) and represented by alpine-scrub and meadows. Thirty-five surface soil samples (twenty, seven and eight from each zone, respectively) were analysed along the altitudinal transect to decode the representation of the extant vegetation in the pollen-rain. The pollen–vegetation relationship is non-linear due to the over-representation of extra-local Pinus pollen in each zone. Nonetheless, the modern pollen assemblages show a general correlation with the local broad-leaved taxa and the herbaceous elements; with the exception of Rhododendron pollen, which is under-represented. Among the non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs), the presence of coprophilous fungal spores is compatible with the grazing activities in the area. Multivariate statistical analyses performed on the surface pollen data indicate that the dataset can efficiently distinguish the different vegetation zones across the altitudinal gradient. This work provides the modern analogues for pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstructions for the Western-Higher Himalayan region, and would also help to decipher the inception and intensification of anthropogenic activities in the region. </jats:p>

Palabras clave: Paleontology; Earth-Surface Processes; Ecology; Archeology; Global and Planetary Change.

Pp. 095968362210960

Modeled dispersal patterns for wood and grass charcoal are different: Implications for paleofire reconstruction

Richard S VachulaORCID; Emma RehnORCID

<jats:p> Sedimentary charcoal records provide useful perspectives on the long-term controls and behavior of fire in the Earth System. However, a comprehensive understanding of the nuances, biases, and limitations of charcoal as a fire proxy is necessary for reliable paleofire interpretations. Here, we use a charcoal dispersal model to answer the following questions: (1) How does the dispersal of wood and grass charcoal particles differ? (2) Do traditional conceptual models of charcoal dispersal reliably characterize grass charcoal dispersal? We find that small differences in shape (length:width (L:W)) and density of grass and wood charcoal can cause substantial differences in particle dispersal and source area. Whereas the modeled dispersal of wood charcoal shows a localized deposition signal which decays with distance, grass charcoal shows more diffuse deposition lacking a localized center (for both &gt;125 µm and &gt;60 µm). Although paleofire research has typically not distinguished between fuel types when interpreting source area, we show that the dispersal of charcoal derived from different fuels is unlikely to be uniform. Because differences in localization, production, and preservation could bias aggregate charcoal accumulation, caution should be taken when interpreting wood and grass-derived charcoal particles preserved in the same record. Additionally, we propose an alternative, dual background conceptual model of grass charcoal dispersal, as the traditional, two-component (peak and background) conceptual model does not accurately characterize the modeled dispersal of grass charcoal. Lastly, this mismatch of conceptualizations of dispersal mechanics implies that grass charcoal may not fit the criteria necessary for peak analysis techniques. </jats:p>

Palabras clave: Paleontology; Earth-Surface Processes; Ecology; Archeology; Global and Planetary Change.

Pp. 159-166