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Ecology of Transportation, The: Managing Mobility for the Environment

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Institución detectada Año de publicación Navegá Descargá Solicitá
No detectada 2006 SpringerLink

Tabla de contenidos

Ecological effects of aviation

T. Kelly; J. Allan

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 5-24

The local costs to ecological services associated with high seas global transport

R. Mann

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 25-38

Shipwrecked – Shipping impacts on the biota of the Mediterranean Sea

B. S. Galil

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 39-69

Snakes and ladders: Navigable waterways as invasion corridors

B. S. Galil; D. Minchin

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 71-75

The transport and the spread of living aquatic species

D. Minchin

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 77-97

Small craft and the spread of exotic species

D. Minchin; O. FLOERL; D. Savini; A. Occhipinti-Ambrogi

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 99-118

The environmental impacts of private car transport on the sustainability of Irish settlements

R. Moles; W. Foley; B. O'Regan

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 119-164

Mortality in wildlife due to transportation

A. Seiler; J. O. Helldin

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 165-189

Habitat fragmentation due to transport infrastructure : Practical considerations

E. O'Brien

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 191-204

Restoring habitat connectivity across transport corridors: identifying high-priority locations for de-fragmentation with the use of an expert-based model

E. A. van der Grift; R. Pouwels

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 205-231

Habitat and corridor function of rights-of-way

M. P. Huijser; A. P. Clevenger

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 233-254

Impact of road traffic on breeding bird populations

R. Reijnen; R. Foppen

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 255-274

Towards the sustainable development of modern road ecosystems

L.M.J. Dolan et al; H. BOHEMEN; P. WHELAN; K. F. AKBAR; V. O'MALLEY; G. O'LEARY; P. J. KEIZER

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 275-331

Environmental impacts of transport, related to tourism and leisure activities

John Davenport; T. A. Switalski

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 333-360

Contaminants and pollutants

D. Stengel; S. O'Reilly; J. O'Halloran

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity, and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to mineral-dominated subsoils. Progressively deeper samples from the vadose zone to the capillary fringe and into saturated zones often reveal increases in biomass and changes in dominant microbial populations. Biomass appears to slowly decline with depth, and cell viability is limited by temperature between 4.5 and 6 km. In many subsurface environments, spatial distributions of microorganisms are extremely variable, frequently defying prediction. In a few highly structured saturated environments, such as confined or contaminated shallow aquifers, predominant terminal electron accepting activities are arranged in a spatially ordered manner that is consistent with selected geochemical measurements. Sampling issues specific to subsurface environments still require substantial added effort and expense to achieve a reasonable sample density in comparison to most other environments. Technological advances in microbial assay methodologies are easing some of the methodological boundaries that are often exceeded by subsurface samples. Keywords: aquifer, distribution, microorganism, spatial, subsurface, vadose

Pp. 361-389

Información

Tipo: libros

ISBN impreso

978-1-4020-4503-5

ISBN electrónico

978-1-4020-4504-2

Editor responsable

Springer Nature

País de edición

Reino Unido

Fecha de publicación

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