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Adaptive Motion of Animals and Machines


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Overview of Adaptive Motion in Animals and Its Control Principles Applied to Machines

Avis H. Cohen

Since its introduction by George Boole during the mid-1800s, Boolean algebra has become an important part of the of mathematics, science, engineering, and research in artificial intelligence, machine learning and data mining. The Boolean reasoning approach has manifestly become a powerful tool for designing effective and accurate solutions for many problems in decision-making and approximate reasoning optimization. In recent years, Boolean reasoning has become a recognized technique for developing many interesting concept approximation methods in rough set theory. The problem considered in this paper is the creation of a general framework for concept approximation. The need for such a general framework arises in machine learning and data mining. This paper presents a solution to this problem by introducing a general framework for concept approximation which combines rough set theory, Boolean reasoning methodology and data mining. This general framework for approximate reasoning is called (RSABR). The contribution of this paper is the presentation of the theoretical foundation of RSABR as well as its application in solving many data mining problems and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) such as feature selection, feature extraction, data preprocessing, classification of decision rules and decision trees, association analysis.

Part 1 - Motion Generation and Adaptation in Animals | Pp. 3-3

Robust Behaviour of the Human Leg

Reinhard Blickhan; Andre Seyfarth; Heiko Wagner; Arnd Friedrichs; Michael Günther; Klaus D. Maier

The human leg with segments, joints and many muscles is a complicated device. Yet, in dynamic situations such as running, hopping or jumping we behave with ease and without being overwhelmed by the complicated task. We argue that this is possible due to a careful arrangement and fine tuning of all properties from which stability and robustness emerges. Robust and stable systems are easy to control.

Part 1 - Motion Generation and Adaptation in Animals | Pp. 5-16

Control of Hexapod Walking in Biological Systems

Holk Cruse; Volker Dürr; Josef Schmitz; Axel Schneider

To investigate walking we perform experimental studies on animals in parallel with software and hardware simulations of the control structures and the body to be controlled. In this paper, we will first describe the basic behavioral properties of hexapod walking, as the are known from stick insects. Then we describe a simple neural network called Walknet which exemplifies these properties and also shows some interesting emergent properties. The latter arise mainly from the use of the physical properties to simplify explicit calculations. The model is simple, too, because it uses only static neuronal units. The system is currently tested using an adapted version of the robot TARRY II.

Part 1 - Motion Generation and Adaptation in Animals | Pp. 17-29

Purposive Locomotion of Insects in an Indefinite Environment

Masafumi Yano

There are many scientific and technological problems that we cannot deal with today. Our current scientific methodology cannot be applied to what is called the real world problem. Because the real world is unpredictably and dynamically changing, it is impossible to objectify it in advance and to apply the traditional methodology to it. This real world problem especially arises in information processing systems such as the recognition and the control systems coping with the real world. The current information systems request in advance the complete information to deal with. In the case of robot in the real world, to attain the purpose a robot is usually required to solve the inverse problem adjusting the changes of the real world. It is always an ill-posed problem. When the robot autonomously solves the ill-posed problem, some proper constraints should be self-organized in the robot. In addition to the self-organization of the constraints, the robot is required to satisfy the constraints in real time. Here we propose a new real-time control mechanism for the purposive movements of a robot under the unpredictably changing environment.

Part 1 - Motion Generation and Adaptation in Animals | Pp. 31-40

Control Principles for Locomotion -Looking Toward Biology

Avis H. Cohen

This paper presents a method for energy efficient walking of a biped robot with a layered controller. The lower layer controller has a state machine for each leg. The state machine consists of four states: 1) constant torque is applied to hip and knee joints of the swing leg, 2) no torque is applied so that the swing leg can move in a ballistic manner, 3) a PD controller is used so that the certain posture can be realized at the heel contact, which enables a biped robot to walk stably, and 4) as the support leg, hip and knee joints are servoed to go back and the torque to support upper leg is applied. With this lower layer controller, the upper layer controller can search parameters that enable the robot to walk as energy efficiently as human walking without paying any attention to fall down.

Part 1 - Motion Generation and Adaptation in Animals | Pp. 41-51

Higher Nervous Control of Quadrupedal vs Bipedal Locomotion in Non-human Primates; Common and Specific Properties

Shigemi Mori; Futoshi Mori; Katsumi Nakajima

Bipedal (Bp) terrestrial locomotion is a routine, everyday activity for humans and advanced non-human primates. While its elaboration seems simple, it actually involves much skill and long-term locomotor learning, such that the CNS can achieve a seamless spatial and temporal integration of multiple motor segments. To advance understanding of the CNS control mechanisms that operate during Bp locomotion, it seemed necessary to make use of a non-human primate model. This strategy invites the possibility of employing state-of-the-art interventional recording techniques and cellular-to-systems level of neuroscientific analysis to the study of locomotion. We think that the study of posture and locomotion is fundamental to the understanding of basic brain-behavior relationships from the cellular to the behavioral level of analysis. To this end, we used operant conditioning to train the normally quadrupedal (Qp)-walking juvenile Japanese monkey () to stand upright and walk bipedally on the surface of a moving treadmill belt. Our studies have started to reveal brain mechanisms involved in the successful emergence and elaboration of Bp locomotion.

Part 1 - Motion Generation and Adaptation in Animals | Pp. 53-65

Interactions between Motions of the Trunk and the Angle of Attack of the Forelimbs in Synchronous Gaits of the Pika ()

Remi Hackert; Hartmut Witte; Martin S. Fischer

During half-bound gait on a treadmill pikas (: Lagomorpha) show a preference in the choice of the trailing limb (“handedness”). Duration of steps shows significantly higher variation in the trailing limb than in the leading limb. This observation motivated calculations of the position of the center of mass (CoM) in the body frame of the pika during half-bound cycles. CoM is aligned with first of the ulna of the trailing and second of the leading limb during major parts of the forelimbs’ stance phase. Referring to our large cineradiographic data base on the kinematics of the legs we could note that the horizontal motion of the CoM in the body is mainly determined by flexion and extension of the back. This observation underlines the determinant role of the trunk as the main engine for fast locomotion. Using high-speed video films we measured the angle of attack (defined as the angle between the ulna and the ground at touch down). We couldn’t observe any significant change with speed during half-bound, indicating the important role of self-stabilising mechanisms on the choice of kinematics.

Part 2 - Adaptive Mechanics | Pp. 69-77

On the Dynamics of Bounding and Extensions: Towards the Half-Bound and Gallop Gaits

Ioannis Poulakakis; James Andrew Smith; Martin Buehler

This paper examines how simple control laws stabilize complex running behaviors such as bounding. First, we discuss the unexpectedly different local and global forward speed versus touchdown angle relationships in the self-stabilized Spring Loaded Inverted Pendulum. Then we show that, even for a more complex energy conserving unactuated quadrupedal model, many bounding motions exist, which can be locally open loop stable! The success of simple bounding controllers motivated the use of similar control laws for asymmetric gaits resulting in the first experimental implementations of the half-bound and the rotary gallop on Scout II.

Part 2 - Adaptive Mechanics | Pp. 79-88

Jumping, Walking, Dancing, Reaching: Moving into the Future. Design Principles for Adaptive Motion

Rolf Pfeifer

Designing for adaptive motion is still largely considered an art. In recent years, we have been developing a set of heuristics or design principles, that on the one hand capture theoretical insights about adaptive systems, and on the other provide guidance in actually designing and building adaptive systems. In this paper we discuss, in particular, the principle of “ecological balance” which is about the relation between morphology, materials, and control. As we will argue, artificial evolution together with morphogenesis is not only “nice to have” but turns out to be a necessary design tool for adaptive motion.

Part 3 - Machine Design and Control | Pp. 91-106

Towards a “Well-Balanced” Design: How Should Control and Body Systems be Coupled?

Akio Ishiguro; Kazuhisa Ishimaru; Toshihiro Kawakatsu

This study is intended to deal with the interdependency between control and body systems, and to discuss the “relationship as it should be” between these two systems. To this end, a decentralized control of a multi-legged robot is employed as a practical example. The results derived indicate that the convergence of decentralized gait control can be significantly ameliorated by modifying its interaction between the control system and its body system to be implemented.

Part 3 - Machine Design and Control | Pp. 107-116

Experimental Study on Control of Redundant 3-D Snake Robot Based on a Kinematic Model

Fumitoshi Matsuno; Kentaro Suenaga

In this paper, we derive a kinematic model and a control law for 3D snake robots which have wheeled link mechanism. We define the redundancy controllable system and find that introduction of links without wheels makes the system redundancy controllable. Using redundancy, it becomes possible to accomplish both main objective of controlling the position and the posture of the snake robot head, and sub-objective of the singular configuration avoidance. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control law.

Part 3 - Machine Design and Control | Pp. 117-128

Simulation Study of Self-Excited Walking of a Biped Mechanism with Bent Knee

Kyosuke Ono; Xiaofeng Yao

This paper presents a simulation study of self-excited walking of a four-link biped model whose support leg is holding a bending angle at the knee. We found that the biped model with a bent knee can walk faster than the straight support leg model that has been studied so far. The convergence characteristics of the self-excited walking are shown in relation to the bent knee angle. By using standard link parameter values we investigated the effect of the bent knee angle and foot radius on walking performance. We found that the walking speed of 0.7 m/s can be achieved when the bent knee angle is 15 degrees and the foot radius is 40mm.

Part 4 - Bipedal Locomotion Utilizing Natural Dynamics | Pp. 131-142

Design and Construction of MIKE; a 2-D Autonomous Biped Based on Passive Dynamic Walking

Martijn Wisse; Jan van Frankenhuyzen

For research into bipedal walking machines, autonomous operation is an important issue. The key engineering problem is to keep the weight of the actuation system small enough. For our 2D prototype MIKE, we solve this problem by applying pneumatic McKibben actuators on a passive dynamic biped design. In this paper we present the design and construction of MIKE and elaborate on the most crucial subsystem, the pneumatic system. The result is a fully autonomous biped that can walk on a level floor with the same energy efficiency as a human being. We encourage the reader to view the movies of the walking results at .

Part 4 - Bipedal Locomotion Utilizing Natural Dynamics | Pp. 143-154

Learning Energy-Efficient Walking with Ballistic Walking

Masaki Ogino; Koh Hosoda; Minoru Asada

This paper presents a method for energy efficient walking of a biped robot with a layered controller. The lower layer controller has a state machine for each leg. The state machine consists of four states: 1) constant torque is applied to hip and knee joints of the swing leg, 2) no torque is applied so that the swing leg can move in a ballistic manner, 3) a PD controller is used so that the certain posture can be realized at the heel contact, which enables a biped robot to walk stably, and 4) as the support leg, hip and knee joints are servoed to go back and the torque to support upper leg is applied. With this lower layer controller, the upper layer controller can search parameters that enable the robot to walk as energy efficiently as human walking without paying any attention to fall down.

Part 4 - Bipedal Locomotion Utilizing Natural Dynamics | Pp. 155-164

Motion Generation and Control of Quasi Passsive Dynamic Walking Based on the Concept of Delayed Feedback Control

Yasuhiro Sugimoto; Koichi Osuka

Recently, Passive-Dynamic-Walking (PDW) has been noticed in the research of biped walking robots. In this paper, focusing on the entrainment phenomena which is the one of character of PDW, we provide a new control method of Quasi-Passive-Dynamic-Walking. Concretely, at first, for the sake of the continuous walking of robot and taking place of the entrainment phenomenon, we adopt a kind of PD control which gains are regulated by the state of the contact phase of swing leg. And, considering the making use of the concept of DFC, we use (-1)- trajectory of the walking robot as the reference trajectory of the step. As a result, it can be expected that the robot itself generates the optimum stable trajectory and the walking is stabilized by using this trajectory.

Part 4 - Bipedal Locomotion Utilizing Natural Dynamics | Pp. 165-174

Gait Transition from Swimming to Walking: Investigation of Salamander Locomotion Control Using Nonlinear Oscillators

Auke Jan Ijspeert; Jean-Marie Cabelguen

This article presents a model of the salamander’s locomotion controller based on nonlinear oscillators. Using numerical simulations of both the controller and of the body, we investigated different systems of coupled oscillators that can produce the typical swimming and walking gaits of the salamander. Since the exact organization of the salamander’s locomotor circuits is currently unknown, we used the numerical simulations to investigate which type of coupled-oscillator configurations could best reproduce some key aspects of salamander locomotion. We were in particular interested in (1) the ability of the controller to produce a traveling wave along the body for swimming and a standing wave for walking, and (2) the role of sensory feedback in shaping the patterns. Results show that configurations which combine global couplings from limb oscillators to body oscillators, as well as inter-limb couplings between fore- and hind-limbs come closest to salamander locomotion data. It is also demonstrated that sensory feedback could potentially play a significant role in the generation of standing waves during walking.

Part 5 - Neuro-Mechanics & CPG and/or Reflexes | Pp. 177-188

Nonlinear Dynamics of Human Locomotion: from Real-Time Adaptation to Development

Gentaro Taga

The nonlinear dynamics of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system and the environment play central roles for the control of human bipedal locomotion. Our neuro-musculo-skeletal model demonstrates that walking movements emerge from a global entrainment between oscillatory activity of a neural system composed of neural oscillators and a musculo-skeletal system. The attractor dynamics are responsible for the stability of locomotion when the environment changes. By linking the self-organizing mechanism for the generation of movements to the optical flow information that indicates the relationship between a moving actor and the environment, visuo-motor coordination is achieved. Our model can also be used to simulate pathological gaits due to brain disorders. Finally, a model of the development of bipedal locomotion in infants demonstrates that independent walking is acquired through a mechanism of freezing and freeing degrees of freedom.

Part 5 - Neuro-Mechanics & CPG and/or Reflexes | Pp. 189-204

Towards Emulating Adaptive Locomotion of a Quadrupedal Primate by a Neuro-musculo-skeletal Model

Naomichi Ogihara; Nobutoshi Yamazaki

A neuro-musuculo-skeletal model of a quadrupedal primate is constructed in order to elucidate the adaptive nature of primate locomotion by the means of simulation. The model is designed so as to spontaneously induce locomotion adaptive to environment and to its body structure, due to dynamic interaction between convergent dynamics of a recurrent neural network and passive dynamics of a body system. The simulation results show that the proposed model can generate a stepping motion natural to its body structure while maintaining its posture against an external perturbation. The proposed framework for the integrated neuro-control of posture and locomotion may be extended for understanding the adaptive mechanism of primate locomotion.

Part 5 - Neuro-Mechanics & CPG and/or Reflexes | Pp. 205-216

Dynamics-Based Motion Adaptation for a Quadruped Robot

Hiroshi Kimura; Yasuhiro Fukuoka

In this paper, we propose the necessary conditions for stable dynamic walking on irregular terrain in general, and we design the mechanical system and the neural system by comparing biological concepts with those necessary conditions described in physical terms. PD-controller at joints can construct the virtual spring-damper system as the visco-elasticity model of a muscle. The neural system model consists of a CPG (central pattern generator) and reflexes. A CPG receives sensory input and changes the period of its own active phase. CPGs, the motion of the virtual spring-damper system of each leg and the rolling motion of the body are mutually entrained through the rolling motion feedback to CPGs, and can generate adaptive walking. We report our experimental results of dynamic walking on terrains of medium degrees of irregularity in order to verify the effectiveness of the designed neuro-mechanical system. The motion adaptation can be integrated based on the dynamics of the coupled system constructed by the mechanical system and the neural system. MPEG footage of these experiments can be seen at: .

Part 5 - Neuro-Mechanics & CPG and/or Reflexes | Pp. 217-226

A Turning Strategy of a Multi-legged Locomotion Robot

Kazuo Tsuchiya; Shinya Aoi; Katsuyoshi Tsujita

In this paper, we analyze the walking stability of a multi-legged locomotion robot. Based on dynamic characteristics, we propose a strategy for turning whose effectiveness is verified by numerical simulations. The robot can turn more efficiently with fewer slips after decreasing walking stability. That is, the maneuverability of the robot increases by changing the dynamic properties of the robot.

Part 5 - Neuro-Mechanics & CPG and/or Reflexes | Pp. 227-236

A Behaviour Network Concept for Controlling Walking Machines

Jan Albiez; Tobias Luksch; Karsten Berns; Rüdiger Dillmann

The high complexity of the mechanical system and the difficult task of walking itself makes the task of designing the control for legged robots a diffcult one. Even if the implementation of parts of the desired functionality, like posture control or basic swing/stance movement, can be solved by the usage of classical engeneering approaches, the control of the overall system tends to be very unflexible. This paper introduces a new method to combine apects of classical robot control and behaviour based control. Inspired by the activation patterns in the brain and the spinal cord of animals we propose a behaviour network architecture using special signals like activity or target rating to influencce and coordinate the behaviours. The general concept of a single behaviour as well as their interaction within the network is described. This architecture is tested on the four-legged walking machine BISAM and experimental results are presented.

Part 5 - Neuro-Mechanics & CPG and/or Reflexes | Pp. 237-246

Control of Bipedal Walking in the Japanese Monkey, : Reactive and Anticipatory Control Mechanisms

Futoshi Mori; Katsumi Nakajima; Shigemi Mori

While the young Japanese monkey, , is growing, it can be trained operantly to maintain an upright posture and use bipedal (Bp) walking on a moving treadmill belt. For Bp locomotion, the animal generates sufficient propulsive force to smoothly and swiftly move the center of body mass (CoM) forward. The monkey can also adapt its gait to meet changing environmental demands. This appears to be accomplished by use of CNS strategies that include reactive and anticipatory control mechanisms. In this chapter, we provide evidence that the Bp walking monkey can select the most appropriate body-leg kinematic parameters to solve a variety of walking tasks. This recently developed non-human primate model has the potential to advance understanding of CNS operating principles that contribute to the elaboration and control of Bp walking in the human.

Part 6 - Adaptation at Higher Nervous Level | Pp. 249-259

Dynamic Movement Primitives -A Framework for Motor Control in Humans and Humanoid Robotics

Stefan Schaal

Given the continuous stream of movements that biological systems exhibit in their daily activities, an account for such versatility and creativity has to assume that movement sequences consist of segments, executed either in sequence or with partial or complete overlap. Therefore, a fundamental question that has pervaded research in motor control both in artificial and biological systems revolves around identifying movement primitives (a.k.a. units of actions, basis behaviors, motor schemas, etc.). What are the fundamental building blocks that are strung together, adapted to, and created for ever new behaviors? This paper summarizes results that led to the hypothesis of Dynamic Movement Primitives (DMP). DMPs are units of action that are formalized as stable nonlinear attractor systems. They are useful for autonomous robotics as they are highly flexible in creating complex rhythmic (e.g., locomotion) and discrete (e.g., a tennis swing) behaviors that can quickly be adapted to the inevitable perturbations of a dynamically changing, stochastic environment. Moreover, DMPs provide a formal framework that also lends itself to investigations in computational neuroscience. A recent finding that allows creating DMPs with the help of well-understood statistical learning methods has elevated DMPs from a more heuristic to a principled modeling approach. Theoretical insights, evaluations on a humanoid robot, and behavioral and brain imaging data will serve to outline the framework of DMPs for a general approach to motor control in robotics and biology.

Part 6 - Adaptation at Higher Nervous Level | Pp. 261-280

Coupling Environmental Information from Visual System to Changes in Locomotion Patterns: Implications for the Design of Adaptable Biped Robots

Aftab E. Patla; Michael Cinelli; Michael Greig

Information at a distance provided by vision is critical for adaptive human locomotion. In this paper we focus on which visually observable environmental features from the visual images on the retina are extracted and how they are coupled to changes in appropriate locomotion patterns. Studies related to environmental features that pose a danger to the mobile agent are described: these include obstacles; sliding doors and undesirable foot landing area in the travel path. Both static and dynamic environmental features result in changing optic flow patterns: environmental features that change independently pose an added challenge. Key results from these studies are discussed in terms of issues that are important for the implementation of visually guided adaptable biped robot.

Part 6 - Adaptation at Higher Nervous Level | Pp. 281-298


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Springer Nature

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Reino Unido

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