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Web Engineering: 7th International Conference, ICWE 2007 Como, Italy, July 16-20, 2007 Proceedings

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On Embedding Task Memory in Services Composition Frameworks

Rosanna Bova; Hye-Young Paik; Salima Hassas; Salima Benbernou; Boualem Benatallah

With the increasing availability of Web services and adoption of services oriented paradigm, there is a growing need to dynamically compose services for realizing complex user tasks. While service composition is itself an important problem, a key issue is also how to support users in selecting the most appropriate compositions of services to fulfill a task. In existing dynamic services selection approaches, combinations of services are repeatedly discovered (e.g., using ontology-based matching techniques) and selected by users whenever needed. To improve their effectiveness, we propose a new technique that provides an efficient access to what is named a “task memory”. A task memory is used to provide users with a context-aware service selection by recommending combinations of services that are most appropriate in a given context. A task memory is formed using the service composition history and their metadata. We present an incremental approach for building the task memory in which we monitor how users use and rank the services. The continuous updates of the task memory over time will result in more fine-tuned recommendations for composite services.

Pp. 1-16

A QoS Test-Bed Generator for Web Services

Antonia Bertolino; Guglielmo De Angelis; Andrea Polini

In the last years both industry and academia have shown a great interest in ensuring consistent cooperation for business-critical services, with contractually agreed levels of Quality of Service. Service Level Agreement specifications as well as techniques for their evaluation are nowadays irremissible assets. This paper presents Puppet (Pick UP Performance Evaluation Test-bed), an approach and a tool for the automatic generation of test-beds to empirically evaluate the QoS features of a Web Service under development. Specifically, the generation exploits the information about the coordinating scenario (be it choreography or orchestration), the service description (WSDL) and the specification of the agreements (WS-Agreement).

Pp. 17-31

Engineering Compensations in Web Service Environment

Michael Schäfer; Peter Dolog; Wolfgang Nejdl

Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure in such an environment occurs, a compensation can be initiated to recover from the failure. However, current environments have only limited capabilities for compensations, and are usually based on backward recovery. In this paper, we introduce an engineering approach and an environment to deal with advanced compensations based on forward recovery principles. We extend the existing Web service transaction coordination architecture and infrastructure in order to support flexible compensation operations. A contract-based approach is being used, which allows the specification of permitted compensations at runtime. We introduce the and components which allow us to separate the compensation logic from the coordination logic. In this way, we can easily plug in or plug out different compensation strategies based on a specification language defined on top of basic compensation activities and complex compensation types. Experiments with our approach and environment show that such an approach to compensation is feasible and beneficial.

Pp. 32-46

Context-Aware Workflow Management

Liliana Ardissono; Roberto Furnari; Anna Goy; Giovanna Petrone; Marino Segnan

We describe the CAWE framework for the management of context-aware workflow systems, based on Web Services. The framework is based on a hierarchical workflow representation supporting a synthetic and extensible specification of context-sensitive workflows, which can be executed by standard workflow engines. We have exploited the CAWE framework to develop a prototype application handling a medical guideline specifying the activities to be performed in order to monitor patients treated with blood thinners.

Pp. 47-52

Practical Methods for Adapting Services Using Enterprise Service Bus

Hyun Jung La; Jeong Seop Bae; Soo Ho Chang; Soo Dong Kim

In service-oriented computing (SOC), services are designed not just for a dedicated client but for a family of potential clients. For services to be generic and serviceable to different clients, service variability among the clients must be analyzed and modeled into service components. is an architectural framework for service integration, but it does not provide effective adaptation mechanisms. Hence, it is desirable to devise techniques to adapt services on ESB for specific service requests. In this paper, we identify four types of service variability, and we present methods to adapt services provided on ESB. These methods can be practically applied in designing highly adaptable services on ESB.

Pp. 53-58

On the Quality of Navigation Models with Content-Modification Operations

Jordi Cabot; Jordi Ceballos; Cristina Gómez

Initially, web development methods focused on the generation of read-only web applications for browsing the data stored in relational database systems. Lately, many have evolved to include content-modification functionalities. As a consequence, we believe that existing quality properties for web model designs must be complemented with new property definitions. In particular, we propose two new quality properties that take the relationship between navigation models and the related data models into account. The properties check if navigation models include all necessary content-modification operations and whether all possible navigation paths modify the underlying data in a consistent way. In this paper, we show how to determine if a navigation model verifies both properties and also how to, given a data model, automatically generate a preliminary navigation model satisfying them.

Pp. 59-73

Metamodeling the Quality of the Web Development Process’ Intermediate Artifacts

Cristina Cachero; Coral Calero; Geert Poels

WE practices lack an impact on industry, partly due to a WE field that is not quality-aware. In fact, it is difficult to find WE methodologies that pay explicit attention to quality aspects. However, the use of a systematic process that includes quality concerns from the earliest stages of development can contribute to easing the building up of quality-guaranteed Web applications without drastically increasing development costs and time-to-market. In this kind of process, quality issues should be taken into account while developing each outgoing artifact, from the requirements model to the final application. . Also, quality models should be defined to evaluate the quality of intermediate WE artifacts and how it contributes to improving the quality of the deployed application. In order to tackle its construction while avoiding some of the most common problems that existing quality models suffer from, in this paper we propose a number of WE quality models to address the idiosyncrasies of the different stakeholders and WE software artifacts involved. Additionally, we propose that these WE quality models are supported by an ontology-based WE measurement meta-model that provides a set of concepts with clear semantics and relationships. This WE Quality Metamodel is one of the main contributions of this paper. Furthermore, we provide an example that illustrates how such a metamodel may drive the definition of a particular WE quality model.

Pp. 74-89

The Use of a Bayesian Network for Web Effort Estimation

Emilia Mendes

The objective of this paper is to describe the use of a probabilistic approach to Web effort estimation by means of a Bayesian Network. A Bayesian Network is a model that embodies existing knowledge of a complex domain in a way that supports reasoning with uncertainty. Given that the causal system relative to Web effort estimation has an inherently uncertain nature the use of Bayesian model seemed a reasonable choice. We used a cross-company data set of 150 industrial Web projects volunteered from Web companies worldwide, which are part of the Tukutuku database. Results showed that the effort estimates obtained using a Bayesian Network were sound and significantly superior to the prediction based on two benchmark models, using the mean and median effort respectively.

Pp. 90-104

Sequential Pattern-Based Cache Replacement in Servlet Container

Yang Li; Lin Zuo; Jun Wei; Hua Zhong; Tao Huang

Servlet cache can effectively improve the throughput and reduce response time experienced by customers in servlet container. An essential issue of servlet cache is cache replacement. Traditional solutions such as LRU, LFU and GDSF only concern some intrinsic factors of cache objects regardless of associations among cached objects. For higher performance, some approaches are proposed to utilize these associations to predict customer visit behaviors, but they are still restricted by first-order Markov model and lead to inaccurate predication. In this paper, we describe associations among servlets as sequential patterns and compose them into pattern graphs, which eliminates the limitation of Markov model and achieve more accurate predictions. At last, we propose a discovery algorithm to generate pattern graphs and two predictive probability functions for cache replacement based on pattern graphs. Our evaluation shows that this approach can get higher cache hit ratio and effectively improve the performance of servlet container.

Pp. 105-120

A Hybrid Cache and Prefetch Mechanism for Scientific Literature Search Engines

Huajing Li; Wang-Chien Lee; Anand Sivasubramaniam; C. Lee Giles

, a scientific literature search engine that focuses on documents in the computer science and information science domains, suffers from scalability issue on the number of requests and the size of indexed documents, which increased dramatically over the years. CiteSeer is an effort to re-architect the search engine. In this paper, we present our initial design of a framework for caching query results, indices, and documents. This design is based on analysis of logged workload in CiteSeer. Our experiments based on mock client requests that simulate actual user behaviors confirm that our approach works well in enhancing system performances.

Pp. 121-136

Finalizing Dialog Models at Runtime

Stefan Betermieux; Birgit Bomsdorf

This paper proposes a dialog model for web applications aiming at flexible interface generation. The basic idea is to enable the runtime system to “finalize” the dialog structure. The overall approach follows a task-oriented, user-centered development process, where models of the users’ tasks and the user-system dialog play an essential role. In our approach, these models are transferred to the run time system that allows the user to interact with the web application according to the specifications. It is based on an architecture that separates a task controller and a dialog controller, which are responsible for model execution and dialog creation. Throughout the paper, we take care of the special characteristics of web applications and show enhancements of the conceptual models and of the runtime architecture.

Pp. 137-151

Transparent Interface Composition in Web Applications

Jeronimo Ginzburg; Gustavo Rossi; Matias Urbieta; Damiano Distante

In this paper we present an approach for oblivious composition of Web user interfaces, particularly for volatile functionality. Our approach, which is inspired on well-known techniques for advanced separation of concerns such as aspect-oriented software design, allows to clearly separate the design of the core’s interface from the one corresponding to more volatile services, i.e. those that are offered for short periods of time. Both interfaces are oblivious from each other and can be seamlessly composed using a transformation language. We show that in this way we simplify the application’s evolution by preventing intrusive edition of the interface code. Using some illustrative examples we focus both on design and implementation issues, presenting an extension of the OOHDM design model which supports modular design of volatile functionality.

Pp. 152-166

Fine-Grained Specification and Control of Data Flows in Web-Based User Interfaces

Matthias Book; Volker Gruhn; Jan Richter

When building process-intensive web applications, developers typically spend considerable effort on the exchange of specific data entities between specific web pages and operations under specific conditions, as called for by business requirements. Since the WWW infrastructure provides only very coarse data exchange mechanisms, we introduce a notation for the design of fine-grained conditional data flows between user interface components. These specifications can be interpreted by a data flow controller that automatically provides the data entities to the specified receivers at run-time, relieving developers of the need to implement user interface data flows manually.

Pp. 167-181

Authoring Multi-device Web Applications with Database Access

Giulio Mori; Fabio Paternò; Carmen Santoro

In this paper we present an environment for authoring Web sites through a model-based approach for user interface design. In particular, we focus on how it supports the access to remote databases and the dynamic generation of the Web pages presenting the corresponding query results. The environment is able to support development of applications implemented in many Web mark-up languages (XHTML, XHTML MP, X+V, VoiceXML) adapted to various interaction platforms (vocal, mobile, desktop,...).

Pp. 182-187

Enriching Hypermedia Application Interfaces

André T. S. Fialho; Daniel Schwabe

This paper presents a systematic approach for the authoring of animated multimedia transitions in Web applications, following the current trend of rich interfaces. The transitions are defined based on an abstract interface specification, over which a rhetorical structure is overlaid. This structure is then rendered over concrete interfaces by applying rhetorical style sheets, which define concrete animation schemes. The resulting applications has different transition animations defined according the type of navigation being carried out, always emphasizing the semantically important information. Preliminary evaluation indicates better user experience in using these interfaces.

Pp. 188-193

Functional Web Applications

Torsten Gipp; Jürgen Ebert

Web applications are complex software artefacts whose creation and maintenance is not feasible without abstractions, or models. Many special-purpose languages are used today as notations for these models. We show that can be used as modelling languages, offering substantial benefits. The precision and expressive power of functional languages helps in developing concise and maintainable specifications. We demonstrate our approach with the help of a simple example web site, using Haskell as the implementation language.

Pp. 194-209

Integrating Databases, Search Engines and Web Applications: A Model-Driven Approach

Alessandro Bozzon; Tereza Iofciu; Wolfgang Nejdl; Sascha Tönnies

This paper addresses conceptual modeling and automatic code generation for search engine integration with data intensive Web applications. We have analyzed the similarities (and differences) between IR and database systems to extend an existing domain specific language for data-driven Web applications. The extended Web modeling language specifies the search engine’s index schemas based on the data schema of the Web application and uniquely designs the interaction between the database, the Web application, the search engine and users. We also provide an implementation of a CASE tool extension for visual modeling and code generation. Experimentation of the proposed approach has been successfully applied in the context of the COOPER project.

Pp. 210-225

A Method for Model Based Design of Rich Internet Application Interactive User Interfaces

M. Linaje; Juan C. Preciado; F. Sánchez-Figueroa

During the last years, Web Models have demonstrated their utility facilitating the development of Web Applications. Nowadays, Web Applications have grown in functionality and new necessities have arisen. Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) have been recently proposed as the response to these necessities. However, present Web Models seem to be incomplete for modelling the new features appearing in RIAs (high interactivity, multimedia synchronization, etc). In this paper we propose a Model Driven Method, validated by implementation, called RUX-Model that gives support to multi-level interface specifications for multi-device RIAs.

Pp. 226-241

Improving Communication in Requirements Engineering Activities for Web Applications

Pedro Valderas; Vicente Pelechano

We present a requirements engineering environment which provides techniques and tools to improve communication in Requirements Engineering activities. First, a technique based on requirements ontologies is proposed to allow customers to describe their needs. This technique is supported by a tool. This tool provides analysts with structured descriptions of the customers’ needs that facilitate analysts to understand the problem to be solved. Next, both a model-to-text transformation and a model-to-model transformation are introduced to automatically obtain a textual requirements specification and a task-based requirements model respectively. The textual specification facilitates customers to validate requirements. The task-based requirements model facilitates programmers to interpret the requirements specification.

Pp. 242-247

Meta-model to Support End-User Development of Web Based Business Information Systems

Buddhima De Silva; Athula Ginige

End-user development is proposed as a solution to the issues business people have when getting web applications developed. In this paper, we have presented a meta-model for web based information systems to support End-user Development. End-users can actively participate in web application development using tools to populate and instantiate the meta-model. The meta-model we created is based on three abstraction levels: Shell, Application, and Function. At Shell Level, we model aspects common to all business web applications such as navigation and access control. At Application Level, we model aspects common to specific web applications such as workflows. At Function Level, we model requirements specific to the identified use cases. Inheritance and Overriding properties of the meta-model provide a balance between ease and flexibility when developing business information systems. The key aspect that underpinned this research work is the view- “software is a medium to capture knowledge rather than a product”. Meta-model will help end-users to participate in web application development activities.

Pp. 248-253

Easing Web Guidelines Specification

Barbara Leporini; Fabio Paternò; Antonio Scorcia

More and more accessibility and usability guidelines are being proposed, especially for Web applications. Developers and designers are experiencing an increasing need for tools able to provide them with flexible support in selecting, editing, handling and checking guidelines. In this paper, we present an environment for addressing such issues. In particular, an interactive editor has been designed to assist designers and evaluators in abstracting and specifying new and existing guidelines in an XML-based Guideline Abstraction Language (GAL). Our tool has been designed in such a way to be able to check any guidelines specified in this language without requiring further changes in the tool implementation.

Pp. 254-268

A Transformation-Driven Approach to the Verification of Security Policies in Web Designs

Esther Guerra; Daniel Sanz; Paloma Díaz; Ignacio Aedo

In this paper, we present a verification framework for security policies of Web designs. The framework is based on the transformation of the models that conform the system design into a formalism where further analysis can be performed. The transformation is specified as a triple graph transformation system, which in addition creates mappings between the elements in the source and target models. This allows the back-annotation of the analysis results to the original model by means of triple graphical patterns. The verification mechanisms are provided by the designer of the Web design language, together with the language specification. However, the complexities of the formalisms are hidden to the developer who uses the language.

As case study, we apply these ideas to Labyrinth, a domain specific language oriented to the design of Web applications. The analysis is done by a transformation into the Petri nets formalism, and then performing model checking on the coverability graph. The framework is supported by the meta-modelling tool AToM.

Pp. 269-284

Efficiently Detecting Webpage Updates Using Samples

Qingzhao Tan; Ziming Zhuang; Prasenjit Mitra; C. Lee Giles

Due to resource constraints, Web archiving systems and search engines usually have difficulties keeping the local repository completely synchronized with the Web. To address this problem, sampling-based techniques periodically poll a subset of webpages in the local repository to detect changes on the Web, and update the local copies accordingly. The goal of such an approach is to discover as many changed webpages as possible within the boundary of the available resources. In this paper we advance the state-of-art of the sampling-based techniques by answering a challenging question: We propose a set of sampling policies with various downloading granularities, taking into account the link structure, the directory structure, and the content-based features. We also investigate the update history and the popularity of the webpages to adaptively model the download probability. We ran extensive experiments on a real web data set of about 300,000 distinct URLs distributed among 210 websites. The results showed that our sampling-based algorithm can detect about three times as many changed webpages as the baseline algorithm. It also showed that the changed webpages are most likely to be found in the same directory and the upper directories of the changed sample. By applying clustering algorithm on all the webpages, pages with similar change pattern are grouped together so that updated webpages can be found in the same cluster as the changed sample. Moreover, our adaptive downloading strategies significantly outperform the static ones in detecting changes for the popular webpages.

Pp. 285-300

Auto-Generating Test Sequences for Web Applications

Hongwei Zeng; Huaikou Miao

We propose a formal model, representing the navigation behavior of a Web application as the Kripke structure, and an approach to test generation. The behavior model can be constructed from the object structure of a Web application and then a set of test sequences is derived automatically from the behavior model with respect to some coverage criteria for the object structure by using the model checking’s capability to construct counter-examples.

Pp. 301-305

A Survey of Analysis Models and Methods in Website Verification and Testing

Manar H. Alalfi; James R. Cordy; Thomas R. Dean

Models are considered an essential step in capturing system behavior and simplifying the analysis required to check or improve the quality of software. Verification and testing of websites requires effective modelling techniques that address the specific challenges of web applications (WAs). In this study we survey 21 different modelling methods used in website verification and testing. Based on our survey, a categorization, comparison and evaluation for such models and methods is provided.

Pp. 306-311

Building Semantic Web Portals with WebML

Marco Brambilla; Federico M. Facca

Current conceptual models and methodologies for Web applications concentrate on content, navigation, and service modeling. Although some of them are meant to address semantic web applications too, they do not fully exploit the whole potential deriving from interaction with ontological data sources and and from Semantic annotations. This paper proposes an extension to Web application conceptual models toward Semantic Web. We devise an extension of the WebML modeling framework that fulfills most of the design requirements emerging for the new area of Semantic Web. We generalize the development process to cover Semantic Web and we devise a set of new primitives for ontology importing and querying. Finally, an implementation prototype of the proposed concepts is proposed within the commercial tool WebRatio.

Pp. 312-327

Engineering Semantic-Based Interactive Multi-device Web Applications

Pieter Bellekens; Kees van der Sluijs; Lora Aroyo; Geert-Jan Houben

To build high-quality personalized Web applications developers have to deal with a number of complex problems. We look at the growing class of personalized Web Applications that share three characteristic challenges. Firstly, the semantic problem of how to enable content reuse and integration. Another problem is how to move away from a sluggish static interface to a responsive dynamic one as seen in regular desktop applications. The third problem is adapting the system into a multi-device environment. For this class of personalized Web applications we look at an example application, a TV recommender called SenSee, in which we solve these problems in a metadata-driven way. We go into depth in the techniques we used to create a solution for these given problems, where we particularly look at utilizing the techniques of Web Services, Web 2.0 and the Semantic Web. Moreover, we show how these techniques can also be used to improve the core personalization functionality of the application. In this paper we present our experience with SenSee to demonstrate general engineering lessons for this type of applications.

Pp. 328-342

Towards Improving Web Search by Utilizing Social Bookmarks

Yusuke Yanbe; Adam Jatowt; Satoshi Nakamura; Katsumi Tanaka

Social bookmarking services have become recently popular in the Web. Along with the rapid increase in the amount of social bookmarks, future applications could leverage this data for enhancing search in the Web. This paper investigates the possibility and potential benefits of a hybrid page ranking approach that would combine the ranking criteria of PageRank with the one based on social bookmarks in order to improve the search in the Web. We demonstrate and discuss the results of analytical study made in order to compare both popularity estimates. In addition, we propose a simple hybrid search method that combines both ranking metrics and we show some preliminary experiments using this approach. We hope that this study will shed new light on the character of data in social bookmarking systems and foster development of new, effective search applications for the Web.

Pp. 343-357

Designing Interaction Spaces for Rich Internet Applications with UML

Peter Dolog; Jan Stage

In this paper, we propose a new method for designing rich internet applications. The design process uses results from an object-oriented analysis and employs interaction spaces as the basic abstraction mechanism. State diagrams are employed as refinements of interaction spaces and task models to specify synchronization events and follow up actions on the client and server side. The notation is based on UML.

Pp. 358-363

A Behavioral Model for Rich Internet Applications

Sara Comai; Giovanni Toffetti Carughi

Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) are reshaping the way in which the Web works. They change not only the appearance of the Web interfaces, but also the behavior of applications, permitting novel operations, like data distribution, partial page computation, and disconnected work. In this paper we try to understand the differences between the behavior of traditional dynamic Web applications and RIAs, considering the WebML modeling language and its actual implementation.

Pp. 364-369

Considering Web Accessibility in Information Retrieval Systems

Myriam Arrue; Markel Vigo

Search engines are the most common gateway for information searching in the WWW. Since Information Retrieval systems do not take web accessibility into account, results displayed are not useful for users with disabilities. We present a framework that includes the requirements to overcome this situation. It is composed of three modules: Content Analysis Module, Accessibility Analysis Module and Results Collector Module. This framework facilitates the implementation of search engines which return results ranked according to accessibility level as well as content relevance. Since criteria to sort results by their accessibility are necessary, we define accurate quantitative accessibility metrics which can be automatically calculated exploiting results yielded by any automatic evaluation tool. A prototype based on these requirements has been implemented to show the validity of the proposal.

Pp. 370-384

Fixing Weakly Annotated Web Data Using Relational Models

Fatih Gelgi; Srinivas Vadrevu; Hasan Davulcu

In this paper, we present a fast and scalable Bayesian model for improving – which is typically generated by a (semi) automated information extraction (IE) system from Web documents. Weakly annotated data suffers from two major problems: they (i) might contain incorrect ontological role assignments, and (ii) might have many missing attributes. Our experimental evaluations with the TAP and RoadRunner data sets, and a collection of 20,000 home pages from university, shopping and sports Web sites, indicate that the model described here can improve the accuracy of role assignments from 40% to 85% for template driven sites, from 68% to 87% for non-template driven sites. The Bayesian model is also shown to be useful for improving the performance of IE systems by informing them with additional domain information.

Pp. 385-399

Creating Personal Histories from the Web Using Namesake Disambiguation and Event Extraction

Rui Kimura; Satoshi Oyama; Hiroyuki Toda; Katsumi Tanaka

We have developed a system for gathering information from the Web, using it to create a personal history, and presenting it as a chronological table. It simplifies the task of sorting out the information for various namesakes and dealing with information in widely scattered sources. The system comprises five components: namesake disambiguation, date expression extraction, date expression normalization and completion, relevant information extraction, and chronological table generation.

Pp. 400-414

Comparing Clustering Algorithms for the Identification of Similar Pages in Web Applications

Andrea De Lucia; Michele Risi; Giuseppe Scanniello; Genoveffa Tortora

In this paper, we analyze some widely employed clustering algorithms to identify duplicated or cloned pages in web applications. Indeed, we consider an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm, a divisive clustering algorithm, k-means partitional clustering algorithm, and a partitional competitive clustering algorithm, namely Winner Takes All (WTA). All the clustering algorithms take as input a matrix of the distances between the structures of the web pages. The distance of two pages is computed applying the Levenshtein edit distance to the strings that encode the sequences of HTML tags of the web pages.

Pp. 415-420

Structural Patterns for Descriptive Documents

Antonina Dattolo; Angelo Di Iorio; Silvia Duca; Antonio Angelo Feliziani; Fabio Vitali

Combining expressiveness and plainness in the design of web documents is a difficult task. Validation languages are very powerful and designers are tempted to over-design specifications. This paper discusses an offbeat approach: describing structured content of document by only using a very small set of patterns, regardless of the format and layout of that document. The paper sketches out a formal analysis of some patterns, based on grammars and language theory. The study has been performed on XML languages and DTDs and has a twofold goal: coding empirical patterns in a formal representation, and discussing their completeness.

Pp. 421-426

Component-Based Content Linking Beyond the Application

Johannes Meinecke; Frederic Majer; Martin Gaedke

The content of many innovative Web sites today often originates from beyond the application. This paper is concerned with building Web applications that heavily integrate and link content from external sources, like e.g. Web services or RSS feeds. Unlike conventional applications, they are characterized by a very dynamic and distributed information space. In this context, traditional Web Engineering approaches suffer from the fact that they rely too much on a-priori knowledge of existing content structures. We present a support system and a method for building such applications in a very flexible way. Flexibility is achieved by managing links separately from the content in a dedicated Web service and by composing the application from fine-grained, reusable components that realize navigation, presentation, and interaction for the linked content.

Pp. 427-441

A Double-Model Approach to Achieve Effective Model-View Separation in Template Based Web Applications

Francisco J. García; Raúl Izquierdo Castanedo; Aquilino A. Juan Fuente

Several works [20,22] have tried to enforce strict isolation between the model and the view in template based web applications by restricting the computing possibilities of the used templates. From the point of view of graphic designers this is a limitation that may make their work difficult. Besides, in this paper we state that this claimed strict isolation is impossible to achieve in practice for HTML template systems. We propose another approach to study and to attain an effective separation between model and view that does not necessarily restrict the expressive power of the template: the double-model approach. Finally we present an implementation of this approach in a renewed template system called JST2.

Pp. 442-456

Model-Driven Development of Web Applications with UWA, MVC and JavaServer Faces

Damiano Distante; Paola Pedone; Gustavo Rossi; Gerardo Canfora

This paper presents a model-driven approach to the development of web applications based on the Ubiquitous Web Application (UWA) design framework, the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern and the JavaServer Faces technology. The approach combines a complete and robust methodology for the user-centered conceptual design of web applications with the MVC metaphor, which improves separation of business logic and data presentation. The proposed approach, by carrying the advantages of Model-Driven Development (MDD) and user-centered design, produces Web applications which are of high quality from the user’s point of view and easier to maintain and evolve.

Pp. 457-472

On Refining XML Artifacts

Felipe I. Anfurrutia; Oscar Díaz; Salvador Trujillo

Step-wise refinement is a powerful paradigm for developing a complex program from a simple program by adding features incrementally where each feature is an increment in program functionality. Existing works focus on object-oriented representations such as Java or C++ artifacts. For this paradigm to be brought to the Web, refinement should be realised for XML representations. This paper elaborates on the notion of XML refinement by addressing what and how XML can be refined. These ideas are realised in the XAK language. A Struts application serves to illustrate the approach.

Pp. 473-478

Mixup: A Development and Runtime Environment for Integration at the Presentation Layer

Jin Yu; Boualem Benatallah; Fabio Casati; Florian Daniel; Maristella Matera; Regis Saint-Paul

In this paper we present a development and runtime environment for creating composite applications by reusing existing components. The granularity of components is that of stand-alone modules encapsulating reusable functionalities. The goal is to allow developers to easily create composite applications by combining the components’ individual user interfaces.

Pp. 479-484

Squiggle: An Experience in Model-Driven Development of Real-World Semantic Search Engines

Irene Celino; Emanuele Della Valle; Dario Cerizza; Andrea Turati

Search engines are becoming such an easy way to find textual resources that we wish to use them also for multimedia content; however, syntactic techniques, even if promising, are not up to the task: future search engines must consider new approaches. In order to prove that Semantic Web technologies provide real benefits to end users in terms of an easier and more effective access to information, we designed and developed Squiggle, a Semantic Web framework that eases the deployment of semantic search engines. Following a model-driven approach to application development, Squiggle makes ontologies part of the running code. We evaluate the advantages of Squiggle against traditional approaches in real world deployments.

Pp. 485-490

WebTE: MDA Transformation Engine for Web Applications

Santiago Meliá; Jaime Gómez; José Luís Serrano

Transformations are of crucial importance for the success of Model-Driven Web Engineering (MDWE) approaches. Therefore, we need transformation engines to improve and obtain the results of the different approaches. However, very few model-driven Web approaches provide a transformation tool which would allow them to obtain an implementation from their models. In this paper, we present a tool called WebTE (WebSA Transformation Engine) which is able to introduce all the input artefacts of the WebSA approach and to establish a refining process based on model-to-model and model-to-text transformations which gives us the final implementation of a Web application.

Pp. 491-495

Noodles: A Clustering Engine for the Web

Giansalvatore Mecca; Salvatore Raunich; Alessandro Pappalardo; Donatello Santoro

The paper describes the Noodles system, a clustering engine for Web and desktop searches. By employing a new algorithm for document clustering, based on Latent Semantic Indexing, Noodles provides good classification power to simplify browsing of search results by casual users. In the paper, we provide some background about the problem of clustering search results, give an overview of the novel techniques implemented in the system, and present its architecture and main features.

Pp. 496-500

WebRatio 5: An Eclipse-Based CASE Tool for Engineering Web Applications

Roberto Acerbis; Aldo Bongio; Marco Brambilla; Stefano Butti

The goal of this work is to present the software WebRatio 5, which is a good representative of a new generation of CASE tools for model-driven design of Web applications. WebRatio 5 supports the WebML language and methodology, and exploits the implementation experience of previous versions of the software for providing user-friendly application design paradigms and reliable code generation engines. The tool is developed as a set of Eclipse plug-ins and takes advantage of all the features of this IDE framework. Moreover, it provides new capabilities in terms of support of extensions to the models, project documentation, and coverage of new phases of the development lifecycle. The overall approach moves towards a full coverage of the specification, design, verification, and implementation of Web applications.

Pp. 501-505

Extending Ruby on Rails for Semantic Web Applications

Cédric Mesnage; Eyal Oren

We extend the Ruby on Rails framework towards a more complete Semantic Web application framework. The SWORD plugin provides developers with a set of tools and libraries for managing Semantic Web data and rapid Semantic Web Application development. We describe the functionality of the SWORD plugin and demonstrate its use for rapid development of a social networking application.

Pp. 506-510

Personalized Faceted Navigation in the Semantic Web

Michal Tvarožek; Mária Bieliková

This paper presents the prototype of an adaptive faceted semantic browser – Factic. Factic implements our novel method of navigation in open information spaces represented by ontologies based on an enhanced faceted browser with support for dynamic facet generation and adaptation based on user characteristics. It is developed as part of a modular framework that supports personalization based on an automatically acquired ontological user model. We describe software tool design and implementation together with discussion on several problems mostly related to the general immaturity of current Semantic Web solutions.

Pp. 511-515

WebVAT: Web Page Visualization and Analysis Tool

Yevgen Borodin; Jalal Mahmud; Asad Ahmed; I. V. Ramakrishnan

WebVAT is an open-source platform-independent visualization tool designed to facilitate Web page analysis. The tool, built on top of the Mozilla Web browser, exposes Mozilla’s internal representation of Web pages, , reflecting HTML rendering information. Compared to HTML DOM analyzers, WebVAT provides access to a cleaner, fuller, and more accurate data structure, which contains layout information, reflecting changes made by CSS and some types of dynamic content. WebVAT provides a framework for experiments and evaluations of algorithms over the Frame Tree. WebVAT also captures user interaction with the browser and can be used for data collection. WebVAT is a working tool actively used in the HearSay [10] project. This paper describes the architecture, design, and some of the applications of WebVAT.

Pp. 516-520

Smart Tools to Support Meta-design Paradigm for Developing Web Based Business Applications

Athula Ginige; Xufeng Liang; Makis Marmaridis; Anupama Ginige; Buddihma De Silva

Many Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) tend to gradually adopt Web based business applications to enhance their business processes. To support this gradual adoption we need a framework that supports iterative development. Further processes that have been supported by web based business applications can change and evolve requiring applications to be changed accordingly. To support these needs we have extended the omponent ased pplication evelopment and eployment hell; CBEADS. We analysed many business applications and derived a meta-model. We implemented this meta-model with in CBEADS and developed a set of Smart Tools to take the instance values of the meta-model and generate the web based business applications. When a new business application is required, a business analyst can create a new instance of the meta-model. To change an implemented business application the appropriate values of the meta-model instance that corresponds to the particular application can be changed.

Pp. 521-525

Next-Generation Tactical-Situation-Assessment Technology (TSAT): Chat

Emily W. Medina; Sunny Fugate; LorRaine Duffy; Dennis Magsombol; Omar Amezcua; Gary Rogers; Marion G. Ceruti

This paper presents concepts, content, status, applications and challenges of chat as used in the military context of secure net-centric command and control. It describes the importance of chat as it contributes to situation assessment and the common operating picture, which presents current collective knowledge of the battle space. The paper discusses future chat capabilities and outlines the road ahead for the TSAT project.

Pp. 526-532

Tool Support for Model Checking of Web Application Designs

Marco Brambilla; Jordi Cabot; Nathalie Moreno

In this work we report our experience in applying model checking techniques to the analysis of static and dynamic properties of Web application models. We propose a mix of tools that facilitate model driven design of Web applications, automatic code generation, and automatic property verification. As recommended by current tendencies in the academic field, we bridge the gap between the tools by devising a set of MDA transformations between the different models. We show that such approach is feasible although we also highlight how current state-of-the-art industrial tools are still partially inadequate for providing seamless support to MDA approaches for industrial Web applications.

Pp. 533-538

Developing eBusiness Solutions with a Model Driven Approach: The Case of Acer EMEA

Roberto Acerbis; Aldo Bongio; Marco Brambilla; Massimo Tisi; Stefano Ceri; Emanuele Tosetti

This paper addresses the problem of developing enterprise-class eBusiness solutions in a more economically viable and time-effective way, by adopting Model Driven Development (MDD). Specifically, we report on an experience of more than six years of collaboration between Acer Inc. (the 4th branded PC vendor worldwide) and Web Models, an Italian startup company spinoff of Politecnico di Milano, innovator in the market of software tools and methodologies for MDD. The results clearly demonstrate that MDD can shorten the development of complex eBusiness solutions, improve the quality and conformance to requirements, and increase the economic profitability of solutions, by lowering the total cost of ownership and extending the life span of systems.

Pp. 539-544

The Challenges of Application Service Hosting

Ike Nassi; Joydip Das; Ming-Chien Shan

In this paper, we discuss the major issues associated with the new model of software delivery – service on demand – and explain why it alters the economics of software. As this model is expected to deliver fundamental leaps in cost efficiency, operation performance, infrastructure orchestration and application control, we describe the supporting technology required to achieve these goals. We also highlight those crucial operational processes for enhancing the quality of software delivery under the service on demand model. We then briefly outline our research roadmap to develop an on demand operating environment based on the fundamental principles: standardization, repetition, and, ultimately, automation.

Pp. 545-549

Securing Code in Services Oriented Architecture

Emilio Rodriguez Priego; Francisco J. García

SOA proposed security mechanisms are only centered in the data transmitted between service provider and consumer. However, it’s well known that the biggest threats to the integrity of the information are precisely focused not on the data directly but on the code that manages it. Our main statement is that it will only be possible to reach an acceptable level of security if the protection mechanisms cover not only the data but also the code that process these data. In this paper we present a new approach about mobile code security based on the Services Oriented Architecture Reference Model and Web Services technology. This new model allows the development of systems with end-to-end security, where all elements (code and data) are secure.

Pp. 550-555

Service Level Agreements: Web Services and Security

Ganna Frankova

To support the quality of service guarantee from the service provider side, complex web services require to be contracted through service level agreement. State of the art on web services and web service compositions provides for a number of models for describing quality of service for web services and their compositions, languages for specifying service level agreement in the web service context, and techniques for service level agreement negotiation and monitoring. However, there is no framework for service level agreement composition and composition monitoring, the existing design methodologies for web services do not address the issue of secure workflows development. The present research proposal aims to develop concepts and mechanisms for service level agreement composition and composition monitoring. A methodology that allows a business process designer to derive the skeleton of the concrete secure business processes from the early requirements analysis would benefit.

Pp. 556-562

Risk Management for Service-Oriented Systems

Natallia Kokash

Web service technology can be used for integrating heterogeneous and autonomous applications into cross-organizational systems. A key problem is to support a high quality of service-oriented systems despite vulnerabilities caused by the use of external web services. One important aspect that has received little attention so far is risk management for such systems. This paper discusses risks peculiar for service-based systems, their impact and ways of mitigation. In the context of service-oriented design, risks can be reduced by selection of appropriate business partners, web service discovery, service composition and Quality of Service (QoS) management.

Vincenzo D’Andrea.

Pp. 563-568

A Framework for Situational Web Methods Engineering

Sebastian Lahajnar

In the past ten years many web application development methods with their own or from other methods borrowed models, techniques and activities were proposed in literature. Each of these methods is appropriate for building several types of web applications on different modeling levels and project phases. It’s unlikely that a single method will ever be capable to cover all aspects of web application development. The most appropriate approach for web application projects is a construction of an organization-specific base method with the use of reusable method fragments (components) and the adaptation of the base method in order to support specific project characteristics. For this purpose, the basis for an appropriate method engineering framework is proposed, which includes a process for method construction and a repository for methods, method components, configurations, rules and development situations characteristics storage.

Pp. 569-574

Información

Tipo: libros

ISBN impreso

978-3-540-73596-0

ISBN electrónico

978-3-540-73597-7

Editor responsable

Springer Nature

País de edición

Reino Unido

Fecha de publicación