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Agricultural Medicine: A Practical Guide

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Institución detectada Año de publicación Navegá Descargá Solicitá
No detectada 2006 SpringerLink

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The Agricultural Environment

William M. Simpson

The health of agriculture varies from robust to moribund. The developed world struggles with diseases of excess nutrition, while developing nations deal with millions of deaths annually from starvation. The world has the capacity to provide enough food for all of its inhabitants, but individual productivity, local politics and structures, national priorities and interconnections, and international trade patterns make distribution inequitable, difficult, and sometimes dangerous and ineffective.

Pp. 1-8

Food Safety and Agricultural Medicine

Robert Bhavesh J. Pandya

Education and training are essential components of a comprehensive effort to enhance the safety and health of agricultural workplaces. The transfer of knowledge using sound educational methodologies will not be replaced either by more intensive research efforts or by implementation of new safety and health regulations. As new knowledge on causative factors is acquired and new regulations are implemented, the demand for educational and training programs that are unique to agriculture and its work force will increase. There remains tremendous opportunity for educators to play a significant role in ensuring that workers in agriculture are equipped with the best knowledge and tools to perform their jobs in a safe and healthy manner.

Pp. 9-28

Overview of Hazards for Those Working in Agriculture

Scott Prince

The manifestation of stressors and associated coping strategies appears to vary according to whether individuals own or operate farms or whether individuals are hired as farm workers. It is apparent that farmers are at risk for the development of stress and other mental health difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and suicide.

Almost all of the studies on the mental health of hired farm workers have been conducted in the last 6 years. Although this literature is more scant than the farmer literature in terms of quantity, the research on stress and mental health in migrant farm workers has been conducted in a methodologically rigorous manner.

Many of these studies produced descriptive findings. Less common were studies that attempted to look at stress, coping, and mental health in a theoretical context. Prospective research is thus necessary to assess the interaction of stress and coping in agricultural workers over time. Also needed is research that looks at the interplay of mental health and physical health over time, given that the literature suggests that severe stress has a negative impact on both facets of health. Intensive, longitudinal work in the area will provide for the type of applied knowledge that will help in the generation of mental health interventions for agricultural workers.

Pp. 29-34

Occupational Regulation

John E. Furman

This chapter consolidates a compliance strategy for the main physical hazards of the workplace. One should not forget, however, that the main reason for implementing such programs should not be to avoid fines, but to safeguard workers, some of whom may be friends or family members.

Pp. 35-41

Education and Training as Intervention Strategies

William E. Field; Roger L. Tormoehlen

Education and training are essential components of a comprehensive effort to enhance the safety and health of agricultural workplaces. The transfer of knowledge using sound educational methodologies will not be replaced either by more intensive research efforts or by implementation of new safety and health regulations. As new knowledge on causative factors is acquired and new regulations are implemented, the demand for educational and training programs that are unique to agriculture and its work force will increase. There remains tremendous opportunity for educators to play a significant role in ensuring that workers in agriculture are equipped with the best knowledge and tools to perform their jobs in a safe and healthy manner.

Pp. 42-52

Personal Protective Equipment and Safety Engineering of Machinery

Mark A. Purschwitz

The health of agriculture varies from robust to moribund. The developed world struggles with diseases of excess nutrition, while developing nations deal with millions of deaths annually from starvation. The world has the capacity to provide enough food for all of its inhabitants, but individual productivity, local politics and structures, national priorities and interconnections, and international trade patterns make distribution inequitable, difficult, and sometimes dangerous and ineffective.

Pp. 53-69

Disability in Agriculture

William E. Field; Paul Jones

As society, especially in rural communities, becomes increasingly inclusive and access to technology becomes more affordable and reliable, the uniqueness of seeing a person with a severe disability working in agricultural production will likely disappear. Vigorous, labor intensive-tasks that a few years ago required two strong arms and legs and a strong back are being rapidly taken over by highly automated machines or replaced entirely by changing agricultural practices, such as the introduction of new herbicides to control weeds. Farmers with missing limbs are compensating with specialized devices that are finding their way into the toolboxes of able-bodied farmers because they make tasks easier to accomplish for everyone. Ranchers with spinal cord injuries are gaining access to and operating large self-propelled pieces of agricultural equipment with the same ease they have in accessing and operating their modified vans. The question is no longer, “Is it possible?” but rather, “How much does it cost and when will it be available?”

If the trend continues toward an increasingly older rural and farm population, the issues of disability within this work force will become even more significant. There will be a need for changes in public policy to ensure adequate funding along with innovative ways to ensure that the rehabilitation needs of this population are not neglected.

Pp. 70-80

Physical Monitoring

James M. Daniels

This chapter consolidates a compliance strategy for the main physical hazards of the workplace. One should not forget, however, that the main reason for implementing such programs should not be to avoid fines, but to safeguard workers, some of whom may be friends or family members.

Pp. 81-87

Biological Monitoring

James B. Becker; James E. Lessenger

Living on farms or doing farm work is associated with a number of health risks, some of which may also pertain to liver or kidney. However, apart from some specific but rare diseases or some unusual local clusters, liver or kidney disease in general is not a major cause of concern in rural settings. One cause for this reduced specific illness frequency as compared with urban populations is the reduced presence of some classical behavioral risk factors, notably smoking and alcohol consumption. The highest risks for liver and kidney disease in farming are due to biological hazards. Toxicological health risks, where present, are not primarily targeted at liver or kidney. This does of course not mean that there are no relevant toxicological risks present in agriculture. Occupational hygiene, including appropriate personal protective equipment, is essential in the handling of toxic chemicals in agriculture, as well as elsewhere.

Pp. 88-97

Drug Programs and Testing

James E. Lessenger

As society, especially in rural communities, becomes increasingly inclusive and access to technology becomes more affordable and reliable, the uniqueness of seeing a person with a severe disability working in agricultural production will likely disappear. Vigorous, labor intensive-tasks that a few years ago required two strong arms and legs and a strong back are being rapidly taken over by highly automated machines or replaced entirely by changing agricultural practices, such as the introduction of new herbicides to control weeds. Farmers with missing limbs are compensating with specialized devices that are finding their way into the toolboxes of able-bodied farmers because they make tasks easier to accomplish for everyone. Ranchers with spinal cord injuries are gaining access to and operating large self-propelled pieces of agricultural equipment with the same ease they have in accessing and operating their modified vans. The question is no longer, “Is it possible?” but rather, “How much does it cost and when will it be available?”

If the trend continues toward an increasingly older rural and farm population, the issues of disability within this work force will become even more significant. There will be a need for changes in public policy to ensure adequate funding along with innovative ways to ensure that the rehabilitation needs of this population are not neglected.

Pp. 98-112

Work Site Visits

Victor Duraj

This chapter consolidates a compliance strategy for the main physical hazards of the workplace. One should not forget, however, that the main reason for implementing such programs should not be to avoid fines, but to safeguard workers, some of whom may be friends or family members.

Pp. 113-117

Children in Agriculture

Lorann Stallones; Huiyun Xiang

Worldwide, children and adolescents continue to make significant contributions to the agricultural work force, but the farm as a place for work and for play can be hazardous for them. Technology has altered the hazards in many developing economies, from increased potential for vectors of disease to increased exposure to pesticides. The increased used of heavy equipment will similarly shift the risks associated with farm work among children and adolescents. Progress toward recognition of hazards inherent in child labor has reduced the risks of farm injury in developed countries; that recognition needs to be applied in developing economies. Strategies need to be devised that address the different farm tasks and cultures in order to have a significant impact on health.

Pp. 118-130

Chemical Exposure: An Overview

James E. Lessenger

The manifestation of stressors and associated coping strategies appears to vary according to whether individuals own or operate farms or whether individuals are hired as farm workers. It is apparent that farmers are at risk for the development of stress and other mental health difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and suicide.

Almost all of the studies on the mental health of hired farm workers have been conducted in the last 6 years. Although this literature is more scant than the farmer literature in terms of quantity, the research on stress and mental health in migrant farm workers has been conducted in a methodologically rigorous manner.

Many of these studies produced descriptive findings. Less common were studies that attempted to look at stress, coping, and mental health in a theoretical context. Prospective research is thus necessary to assess the interaction of stress and coping in agricultural workers over time. Also needed is research that looks at the interplay of mental health and physical health over time, given that the literature suggests that severe stress has a negative impact on both facets of health. Intensive, longitudinal work in the area will provide for the type of applied knowledge that will help in the generation of mental health interventions for agricultural workers.

Pp. 131-143

Fertilizers and Nutrients

Hitoshi Nakaishi; James E. Lessenger

Education and training are essential components of a comprehensive effort to enhance the safety and health of agricultural workplaces. The transfer of knowledge using sound educational methodologies will not be replaced either by more intensive research efforts or by implementation of new safety and health regulations. As new knowledge on causative factors is acquired and new regulations are implemented, the demand for educational and training programs that are unique to agriculture and its work force will increase. There remains tremendous opportunity for educators to play a significant role in ensuring that workers in agriculture are equipped with the best knowledge and tools to perform their jobs in a safe and healthy manner.

Pp. 144-155

Plant Growth Regulators

Louise Ferguson; James E. Lessenger

This chapter consolidates a compliance strategy for the main physical hazards of the workplace. One should not forget, however, that the main reason for implementing such programs should not be to avoid fines, but to safeguard workers, some of whom may be friends or family members.

Pp. 156-166

Pesticides

William M. Simpson

The health of agriculture varies from robust to moribund. The developed world struggles with diseases of excess nutrition, while developing nations deal with millions of deaths annually from starvation. The world has the capacity to provide enough food for all of its inhabitants, but individual productivity, local politics and structures, national priorities and interconnections, and international trade patterns make distribution inequitable, difficult, and sometimes dangerous and ineffective.

Pp. 167-179

Neurological Injuries in Agriculture

Nikita B. Katz; Olga Katz; Steven Mandel

The manifestation of stressors and associated coping strategies appears to vary according to whether individuals own or operate farms or whether individuals are hired as farm workers. It is apparent that farmers are at risk for the development of stress and other mental health difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and suicide.

Almost all of the studies on the mental health of hired farm workers have been conducted in the last 6 years. Although this literature is more scant than the farmer literature in terms of quantity, the research on stress and mental health in migrant farm workers has been conducted in a methodologically rigorous manner.

Many of these studies produced descriptive findings. Less common were studies that attempted to look at stress, coping, and mental health in a theoretical context. Prospective research is thus necessary to assess the interaction of stress and coping in agricultural workers over time. Also needed is research that looks at the interplay of mental health and physical health over time, given that the literature suggests that severe stress has a negative impact on both facets of health. Intensive, longitudinal work in the area will provide for the type of applied knowledge that will help in the generation of mental health interventions for agricultural workers.

Pp. 180-206

Dermatological Conditions

James E. Lessenger

Education and training are essential components of a comprehensive effort to enhance the safety and health of agricultural workplaces. The transfer of knowledge using sound educational methodologies will not be replaced either by more intensive research efforts or by implementation of new safety and health regulations. As new knowledge on causative factors is acquired and new regulations are implemented, the demand for educational and training programs that are unique to agriculture and its work force will increase. There remains tremendous opportunity for educators to play a significant role in ensuring that workers in agriculture are equipped with the best knowledge and tools to perform their jobs in a safe and healthy manner.

Pp. 207-232

Agricultural Respiratory Diseases

Robert Bhavesh J. Pandya

There is ample evidence that agricultural workers and those who reside in agricultural areas have an increased risk for a variety of adverse reproductive health outcomes. Both paternal and maternal exposures to biologic and chemical agents and maternal exposure to physical factors must be recognized and controlled to prevent these adverse effects on fertility and on the next generation of children. Strategies should include reduction or elimination of chemical agents whenever possible, proper personal protective equipment, improved work practices and hygiene, worker education, avoidance of biologic exposures, and reduction in the intensity and duration of maternal physical labor.

Pp. 233-259

Renal and Hepatic Disease

Michael Nasterlack; Andreas Zober

Living on farms or doing farm work is associated with a number of health risks, some of which may also pertain to liver or kidney. However, apart from some specific but rare diseases or some unusual local clusters, liver or kidney disease in general is not a major cause of concern in rural settings. One cause for this reduced specific illness frequency as compared with urban populations is the reduced presence of some classical behavioral risk factors, notably smoking and alcohol consumption. The highest risks for liver and kidney disease in farming are due to biological hazards. Toxicological health risks, where present, are not primarily targeted at liver or kidney. This does of course not mean that there are no relevant toxicological risks present in agriculture. Occupational hygiene, including appropriate personal protective equipment, is essential in the handling of toxic chemicals in agriculture, as well as elsewhere.

Pp. 260-268

Disease and Injury Among Veterinarians

James E. Lessenger

Living on farms or doing farm work is associated with a number of health risks, some of which may also pertain to liver or kidney. However, apart from some specific but rare diseases or some unusual local clusters, liver or kidney disease in general is not a major cause of concern in rural settings. One cause for this reduced specific illness frequency as compared with urban populations is the reduced presence of some classical behavioral risk factors, notably smoking and alcohol consumption. The highest risks for liver and kidney disease in farming are due to biological hazards. Toxicological health risks, where present, are not primarily targeted at liver or kidney. This does of course not mean that there are no relevant toxicological risks present in agriculture. Occupational hygiene, including appropriate personal protective equipment, is essential in the handling of toxic chemicals in agriculture, as well as elsewhere.

Pp. 269-281

The Mental Health of Agricultural Workers

Joseph D. Hovey; Laura D. Seligman

The manifestation of stressors and associated coping strategies appears to vary according to whether individuals own or operate farms or whether individuals are hired as farm workers. It is apparent that farmers are at risk for the development of stress and other mental health difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and suicide.

Almost all of the studies on the mental health of hired farm workers have been conducted in the last 6 years. Although this literature is more scant than the farmer literature in terms of quantity, the research on stress and mental health in migrant farm workers has been conducted in a methodologically rigorous manner.

Many of these studies produced descriptive findings. Less common were studies that attempted to look at stress, coping, and mental health in a theoretical context. Prospective research is thus necessary to assess the interaction of stress and coping in agricultural workers over time. Also needed is research that looks at the interplay of mental health and physical health over time, given that the literature suggests that severe stress has a negative impact on both facets of health. Intensive, longitudinal work in the area will provide for the type of applied knowledge that will help in the generation of mental health interventions for agricultural workers.

Pp. 282-299

Neurotoxicity of Chemicals Commonly Used in Agriculture

Nikita B. Katz; Olga Katz; Steven Mandel

The manifestation of stressors and associated coping strategies appears to vary according to whether individuals own or operate farms or whether individuals are hired as farm workers. It is apparent that farmers are at risk for the development of stress and other mental health difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and suicide.

Almost all of the studies on the mental health of hired farm workers have been conducted in the last 6 years. Although this literature is more scant than the farmer literature in terms of quantity, the research on stress and mental health in migrant farm workers has been conducted in a methodologically rigorous manner.

Many of these studies produced descriptive findings. Less common were studies that attempted to look at stress, coping, and mental health in a theoretical context. Prospective research is thus necessary to assess the interaction of stress and coping in agricultural workers over time. Also needed is research that looks at the interplay of mental health and physical health over time, given that the literature suggests that severe stress has a negative impact on both facets of health. Intensive, longitudinal work in the area will provide for the type of applied knowledge that will help in the generation of mental health interventions for agricultural workers.

Pp. 300-323

Repetitive Motion Injuries

Steven R. Kirkhorn; Guilia Earle-Richardson

Education and training are essential components of a comprehensive effort to enhance the safety and health of agricultural workplaces. The transfer of knowledge using sound educational methodologies will not be replaced either by more intensive research efforts or by implementation of new safety and health regulations. As new knowledge on causative factors is acquired and new regulations are implemented, the demand for educational and training programs that are unique to agriculture and its work force will increase. There remains tremendous opportunity for educators to play a significant role in ensuring that workers in agriculture are equipped with the best knowledge and tools to perform their jobs in a safe and healthy manner.

Pp. 324-338

Trauma in the Agricultural Setting

Gideon Letz; James E. Lessenger

Living on farms or doing farm work is associated with a number of health risks, some of which may also pertain to liver or kidney. However, apart from some specific but rare diseases or some unusual local clusters, liver or kidney disease in general is not a major cause of concern in rural settings. One cause for this reduced specific illness frequency as compared with urban populations is the reduced presence of some classical behavioral risk factors, notably smoking and alcohol consumption. The highest risks for liver and kidney disease in farming are due to biological hazards. Toxicological health risks, where present, are not primarily targeted at liver or kidney. This does of course not mean that there are no relevant toxicological risks present in agriculture. Occupational hygiene, including appropriate personal protective equipment, is essential in the handling of toxic chemicals in agriculture, as well as elsewhere.

Pp. 339-348

Diseases from Plants

Capri-Mara Fillmore; Bruce J. Lanser

Living on farms or doing farm work is associated with a number of health risks, some of which may also pertain to liver or kidney. However, apart from some specific but rare diseases or some unusual local clusters, liver or kidney disease in general is not a major cause of concern in rural settings. One cause for this reduced specific illness frequency as compared with urban populations is the reduced presence of some classical behavioral risk factors, notably smoking and alcohol consumption. The highest risks for liver and kidney disease in farming are due to biological hazards. Toxicological health risks, where present, are not primarily targeted at liver or kidney. This does of course not mean that there are no relevant toxicological risks present in agriculture. Occupational hygiene, including appropriate personal protective equipment, is essential in the handling of toxic chemicals in agriculture, as well as elsewhere.

Pp. 349-366

Diseases from Animals, Poultry, and Fish

James E. Lessenger

The manifestation of stressors and associated coping strategies appears to vary according to whether individuals own or operate farms or whether individuals are hired as farm workers. It is apparent that farmers are at risk for the development of stress and other mental health difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and suicide.

Almost all of the studies on the mental health of hired farm workers have been conducted in the last 6 years. Although this literature is more scant than the farmer literature in terms of quantity, the research on stress and mental health in migrant farm workers has been conducted in a methodologically rigorous manner.

Many of these studies produced descriptive findings. Less common were studies that attempted to look at stress, coping, and mental health in a theoretical context. Prospective research is thus necessary to assess the interaction of stress and coping in agricultural workers over time. Also needed is research that looks at the interplay of mental health and physical health over time, given that the literature suggests that severe stress has a negative impact on both facets of health. Intensive, longitudinal work in the area will provide for the type of applied knowledge that will help in the generation of mental health interventions for agricultural workers.

Pp. 367-382

Diseases from Soil

Royce H. Johnson; Augustine D. Muñoz; Alan Scott Ragland

Education and training are essential components of a comprehensive effort to enhance the safety and health of agricultural workplaces. The transfer of knowledge using sound educational methodologies will not be replaced either by more intensive research efforts or by implementation of new safety and health regulations. As new knowledge on causative factors is acquired and new regulations are implemented, the demand for educational and training programs that are unique to agriculture and its work force will increase. There remains tremendous opportunity for educators to play a significant role in ensuring that workers in agriculture are equipped with the best knowledge and tools to perform their jobs in a safe and healthy manner.

Pp. 383-392

Emerging Zoonotic Agents of Concern in Agriculture

Ricky Lee Langley; Carl John Williams

As society, especially in rural communities, becomes increasingly inclusive and access to technology becomes more affordable and reliable, the uniqueness of seeing a person with a severe disability working in agricultural production will likely disappear. Vigorous, labor intensive-tasks that a few years ago required two strong arms and legs and a strong back are being rapidly taken over by highly automated machines or replaced entirely by changing agricultural practices, such as the introduction of new herbicides to control weeds. Farmers with missing limbs are compensating with specialized devices that are finding their way into the toolboxes of able-bodied farmers because they make tasks easier to accomplish for everyone. Ranchers with spinal cord injuries are gaining access to and operating large self-propelled pieces of agricultural equipment with the same ease they have in accessing and operating their modified vans. The question is no longer, “Is it possible?” but rather, “How much does it cost and when will it be available?”

If the trend continues toward an increasingly older rural and farm population, the issues of disability within this work force will become even more significant. There will be a need for changes in public policy to ensure adequate funding along with innovative ways to ensure that the rehabilitation needs of this population are not neglected.

Pp. 393-416

Arthropod Bites and Stings

Mitchell S. Wachtel; Danny B. Pence

Living on farms or doing farm work is associated with a number of health risks, some of which may also pertain to liver or kidney. However, apart from some specific but rare diseases or some unusual local clusters, liver or kidney disease in general is not a major cause of concern in rural settings. One cause for this reduced specific illness frequency as compared with urban populations is the reduced presence of some classical behavioral risk factors, notably smoking and alcohol consumption. The highest risks for liver and kidney disease in farming are due to biological hazards. Toxicological health risks, where present, are not primarily targeted at liver or kidney. This does of course not mean that there are no relevant toxicological risks present in agriculture. Occupational hygiene, including appropriate personal protective equipment, is essential in the handling of toxic chemicals in agriculture, as well as elsewhere.

Pp. 417-429

Mammal Bites

Antonio Durazo; James E. Lessenger

Living on farms or doing farm work is associated with a number of health risks, some of which may also pertain to liver or kidney. However, apart from some specific but rare diseases or some unusual local clusters, liver or kidney disease in general is not a major cause of concern in rural settings. One cause for this reduced specific illness frequency as compared with urban populations is the reduced presence of some classical behavioral risk factors, notably smoking and alcohol consumption. The highest risks for liver and kidney disease in farming are due to biological hazards. Toxicological health risks, where present, are not primarily targeted at liver or kidney. This does of course not mean that there are no relevant toxicological risks present in agriculture. Occupational hygiene, including appropriate personal protective equipment, is essential in the handling of toxic chemicals in agriculture, as well as elsewhere.

Pp. 430-439

Reptile Bites

A. Nelson Avery

The manifestation of stressors and associated coping strategies appears to vary according to whether individuals own or operate farms or whether individuals are hired as farm workers. It is apparent that farmers are at risk for the development of stress and other mental health difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and suicide.

Almost all of the studies on the mental health of hired farm workers have been conducted in the last 6 years. Although this literature is more scant than the farmer literature in terms of quantity, the research on stress and mental health in migrant farm workers has been conducted in a methodologically rigorous manner.

Many of these studies produced descriptive findings. Less common were studies that attempted to look at stress, coping, and mental health in a theoretical context. Prospective research is thus necessary to assess the interaction of stress and coping in agricultural workers over time. Also needed is research that looks at the interplay of mental health and physical health over time, given that the literature suggests that severe stress has a negative impact on both facets of health. Intensive, longitudinal work in the area will provide for the type of applied knowledge that will help in the generation of mental health interventions for agricultural workers.

Pp. 440-458

Heat, Cold, and Water Immersion Injuries

Karl Auerbach

The manifestation of stressors and associated coping strategies appears to vary according to whether individuals own or operate farms or whether individuals are hired as farm workers. It is apparent that farmers are at risk for the development of stress and other mental health difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and suicide.

Almost all of the studies on the mental health of hired farm workers have been conducted in the last 6 years. Although this literature is more scant than the farmer literature in terms of quantity, the research on stress and mental health in migrant farm workers has been conducted in a methodologically rigorous manner.

Many of these studies produced descriptive findings. Less common were studies that attempted to look at stress, coping, and mental health in a theoretical context. Prospective research is thus necessary to assess the interaction of stress and coping in agricultural workers over time. Also needed is research that looks at the interplay of mental health and physical health over time, given that the literature suggests that severe stress has a negative impact on both facets of health. Intensive, longitudinal work in the area will provide for the type of applied knowledge that will help in the generation of mental health interventions for agricultural workers.

Pp. 459-476

Injuries from Electromagnetic Energy

Stephen A. McCurdy

This chapter consolidates a compliance strategy for the main physical hazards of the workplace. One should not forget, however, that the main reason for implementing such programs should not be to avoid fines, but to safeguard workers, some of whom may be friends or family members.

Pp. 477-483

Acoustic Injuries in Agriculture

James E. Lankford; Deanna K. Meinke

Living on farms or doing farm work is associated with a number of health risks, some of which may also pertain to liver or kidney. However, apart from some specific but rare diseases or some unusual local clusters, liver or kidney disease in general is not a major cause of concern in rural settings. One cause for this reduced specific illness frequency as compared with urban populations is the reduced presence of some classical behavioral risk factors, notably smoking and alcohol consumption. The highest risks for liver and kidney disease in farming are due to biological hazards. Toxicological health risks, where present, are not primarily targeted at liver or kidney. This does of course not mean that there are no relevant toxicological risks present in agriculture. Occupational hygiene, including appropriate personal protective equipment, is essential in the handling of toxic chemicals in agriculture, as well as elsewhere.

Pp. 484-491

Reproductive Hazards

Robert L. Goldberg; Sarah Janssen

There is ample evidence that agricultural workers and those who reside in agricultural areas have an increased risk for a variety of adverse reproductive health outcomes. Both paternal and maternal exposures to biologic and chemical agents and maternal exposure to physical factors must be recognized and controlled to prevent these adverse effects on fertility and on the next generation of children. Strategies should include reduction or elimination of chemical agents whenever possible, proper personal protective equipment, improved work practices and hygiene, worker education, avoidance of biologic exposures, and reduction in the intensity and duration of maternal physical labor.

Pp. 492-504

Información

Tipo: libros

ISBN impreso

978-0-387-25425-8

ISBN electrónico

978-0-387-30105-1

Editor responsable

Springer Nature

País de edición

Reino Unido

Fecha de publicación